Stock Borrow Loan Agreement
The main reason for borrowing a security is the coverage of a short position. Because you have an obligation to provide security, you must borrow it. At the end of the agreement, you must return an equivalent guarantee to the lender. The equivalent means fungible in this context, i.e. the securities must be totally interchangeable. Compare that to the loan of a 10 euro note. They don`t expect exactly the same rating as any 10 euro note. In 2011, FINRA issued an investor alert for equity-based credit programs.  In the warning, FINRA recommended that investors ask several questions, including: 1) What will happen to my action as soon as I guarantee it? (FINRA states that securities should never be sold to finance loans); 2) Did the lender control the finances? (FINRA found that all major publicly traded brokers/banks that should have had verified financial data for investors) and 3) Is the institution that manages the loan and accounts fully authorized and reputable? In investment banking, the term “loan of securities” is also used to describe a service offered to large investors that can allow the investment bank to lend its shares to other people.
This often happens for investors of all sizes who have mortgaged their shares to borrow money to buy more shares, but large investors like pension funds often choose to do so to their non-mortgaged shares because they receive interest. In such agreements, the investor continues to receive dividends as usual, the only thing he can usually not do is choose his shares. In particular, net worth excludes the credit activity of intermediaries (i.e. borrowed securities that finance future loans and loans financed by borrowed securities). Exceptional positions can also be measured on a gross basis, including this activity. Since the beginning of 2010, gross positions are on average twice as high as the value of net positions. In other words, there were an average of two intermediate loans before a guarantee reached the final borrower.  Finished owners (n. Rand) of borrowed securities are generally large long-term clients – superannuation funds, insurance companies and investment managers. These institutions borrow their securities to obtain an additional return on their investments. Cheap homeowners typically use intermediaries (in most cases large internationally active “custodian banks”) to manage their loans.
Similarly, borrowers, including hedge funds, often use intermediaries (usually large “premium brokers”) to support their activities.  Borrower intermediaries may also act on their own. Since most credit and credit intermediaries, as well as actual beneficiaries and borrowers, are large foreign institutions, a large part of the securities loan takes place offshore with shares listed on ASX.